[133] Several major corporations like Volkswagen, Pfizer, and SAP operate innovation laboratories in the city. The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. Many residents strongly identify with their neighborhoods, colloquially called Kiez. The wettest month (with the highest rainfall) is June (68.7mm). [67] The Müggelberge at 114.7 meters (376 ft) elevation is the highest natural point and the lowest is the Spektesee in Spandau, at 28.1 meters (92 ft) elevation. The month with the lowest average high temperature is January (2.9°C). Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East. The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centered, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city. [127] The Federal Foreign Office and the ministries and departments of Defense, Justice and Consumer Protection, Finance, Interior, Economic Affairs and Energy, Labor and Social Affairs, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Food and Agriculture, Economic Cooperation and Development, Health, Transport and Digital Infrastructure and Education and Research are based in the capital. Verlag CH Beck, 2010. Berlin is the capital and the largest city in Germany. Approximately halfway from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. 5,422 km (3,369 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 77 km (48 mi) are motorways (Autobahn). After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule (a comprehensive school) or Gymnasium (college preparatory school). West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. Over one-third of the city area consists of green space, woodlands and water. [59] On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the withdrawal of allied occupation troops allowing a reunified Berlin[60] (the last Russian troops departed on 31 August, while the final departure of Western Allies forces was on 8 September 1994). The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer. The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centers of higher education and research in Germany and Europe. [12] In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. Berlin (/bɜːrˈlɪn/; German: [bɛʁˈliːn] (listen)[7])] is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom,[44] replacing Königsberg. [130] From 2012 to 2015 Berlin, as a German state, had the highest annual employment growth rate. [26][195] The diversity and vivacity of the metropolis led to a trendsetting atmosphere. The month with most sunshine is June (Average sunshine: 7.4h). Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June 1953. The creative arts and entertainment business is an important part of Berlin's economy. Berlin's Expats Go Bezirk", "Egypt battling for more relics after Louvre success", "Dealer Will Enrich Art of the Berlin He Fled", "Berlin – Urban Art – visitBerlin.de EN", "Graffiti in the death strip: the Berlin wall's first street artist tells his story", "The 26 Best Cities in the World To See Street Art", "Art of Now – Berlin's Nightlife – BBC Sounds", "Berlin Philharmonic elects Sir Simon Rattle", "In the Capital of Electronic Music, Women Rule the Scene", "Good Taste Award Winner 2015: Berlin, The New Vegetarian Capital", "Conscious Food Consumption at Berlin's Restlos Glücklich", "Spicy sausage that is worthy of a shrine in Berlin", "Chocolate Heaven at Fassbender & Rausch", "There's Nothing More German Than a Big, Fat Juicy Döner Kebab", "Peter Joseph Lenné, Senate Department of Urban Development", "Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin", "Melbourne retains ultimate sports city title", "Italy conquer the world as Germany wins friends", "Euroleague Final Four returns to Berlin in 2016", "Berlin, Germany selected to host the 2023 Special Olympics World Games", "500,000 spectators to watch the game together", "Der Landessportbund Berlin – Mitglieder", "Berlin's swimming pools and bathing spots", Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, states of the Federal Republic of Germany, Institutional seats of the European Union, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, American Foundation for AIDS Research (AMFAR), Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Spanish Organization for the Blind (ONCE), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin&oldid=1005006547, Populated places established in the 13th century, 1230s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from November 2020, Articles with dead external links from July 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from January 2021, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, BVG / Operates predominantly in eastern boroughs, BVG / Extensive services in all boroughs / 62 Night Lines, BVG / Transportation as well as recreational ferries, 2020: Spanish health workers on the front line against, This page was last edited on 5 February 2021, at 14:03. : Stöver B. Geschichte Berlins. Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages. Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations. In 2015, the total labor force in Berlin was 1.85 million. Contemporary dance can be seen at the Radialsystem V. The Tempodrom is host to concerts and circus inspired entertainment. The month with the longest days is June (Average daylight: 16.7h). It was remodeled by British architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city. The Governing Mayor is simultaneously Lord Mayor of the City of Berlin (Oberbürgermeister der Stadt) and Minister President of the State of Berlin (Ministerpräsident des Bundeslandes). It is spoken in Berlin and the surrounding metropolitan area. It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and increased the population from 1.9 million to 4 million. Clim Change 92: 99–107, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Germany's third-largest metropolitan region, world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement, Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Union of Evangelical Free Church Congregations in Germany, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods, List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, International Congress and Convention Association, largest power plants measured by capacity, Universities and research institutions in Berlin, Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Statistiken", "Statistischer Bericht: Einwohnerinnen und Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. [150] It is home to more than 1,000 film and television production companies, 270 movie theaters, and around 300 national and international co-productions are filmed in the region every year. The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. The Hamburger Bahnhof, in Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. In 2014, around 30,500 creative companies operated in the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan region, predominantly SMEs. [16][17][18][19] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. The coldest month (with the lowest average low temperature) is January (-1.9°C). It covers an area of 210 hectares and stretches from Bahnhof Zoo in the City West to the Brandenburg Gate in the east. Throughout the 1990s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe, made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue. [224], The cuisine and culinary offerings of Berlin vary greatly. The Messe Berlin (also known as Berlin ExpoCenter City) is the main convention organizing company in the city. The annual Berlin International Film Festival (Berlinale) with around 500,000 admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world. [57] In 1961, East Germany began to build the Berlin Wall around West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. [204], In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Allied Museum. The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the 1970s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world. Februar", "BVG will verlängerte U5 am 4. [136][137], Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city. [236], The Tiergarten park in Mitte, with landscape design by Peter Joseph Lenné, is one of Berlin's largest and most popular parks. [202], The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history. Both airports together handled 29.5 million passengers in 2015. Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER. Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. [114] The total annual state budget of Berlin in 2015 exceeded €24.5 ($30.0) billion including a budget surplus of €205 ($240) million. It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. [145] The city recorded 28.7 million overnight hotel stays and 11.9 million hotel guests in 2014. Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in 1995. Several venues have become a popular stage for the Neo-Burlesque scene. Germany is located in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and a general description of the climate is hardly possible due to its geographical location. [100], There are more than 20 nonindigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Austrian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities. [46] Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city. Furthermore, Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate (Dc) under the Trewartha climate scheme, as well as the suburbs of New York, although the Köppen system puts them in different types. [210] In the 1970s and 80s the SO36 in Kreuzberg was a center for punk music and culture. 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